C++/WinRT Available on GitHub

I’m happy to announce that C++/WinRT is now available on GitHub. C++/WinRT is the future of the Modern project and the first public preview coming officially from Microsoft.

https://github.com/microsoft/cppwinrt

What’s new

Since the first public preview a little over a year ago we’ve made a big investment in the C++/WinRT base library. This update also targets build 14393 of the Windows SDK, providing access to all of the Windows 10 Anniversary Update (Version 1607) features.
Significant improvements have been made to virtually all parts of the base library including the metaprogramming facilities, string and error handling. We’ve also added support for various missing features include arrays, collections, and weak references. Delegates are now more efficient and it’s possible to implement any WinRT interface within the projection. This update also includes our complete async programming model based on coroutines.

What’s next

We’re now switching gears to focus on Xaml and component support among other things. Please give it a try and let us know what you think!

For more information, please watch our CppCon talks on YouTube:

Embracing Standard C++ for the Windows Runtime (Slides)

Putting Coroutines to Work with the Windows Runtime (Slides)

Credits

I would like to thank the team responsible for C++/WinRT over the last year: Josue Noriega de la Vega, Kevin Welton, Brent Rector, Jerry Dunietz, Peter Torr and Ben Kuhn. I would also like to thank the Visual C++ team for their help in making this possible. It could not have happened without the help of folks like James McNellis, Gor Nishanov, Vinny Romano, Victor Tong, Jim Radigan, Cody Miller, Harry Pierson, and many others.

CppCon Videos

The videos for our CppCon talks are now available online. The first talk introduces the C++/WinRT language projection and the second discusses how we integrated coroutines to produce a very natural and efficient async programming model.

Embracing Standard C++ for the Windows Runtime (Slides)

Putting Coroutines to Work with the Windows Runtime (Slides)

C++/WinRT at CppCon

I hope you’re on your way to CppCon this week where we’re introducing C++/WinRT, the future of Modern C++ for the Windows Runtime!

Please join us on Monday as James McNellis and Kenny Kerr introduce C++/WinRT at 11am and show you what standard C++ can do for the Windows platform.

Also, be sure to join us for CoroutineCon on Tuesday as Gor Nishanov, James and Kenny spend the day focused on C++ coroutines, from introduction, internals, and finally real-world application with C++/WinRT.

Bring your questions. We hope to see you there!

Microsoft + Modern

As I mentioned in October, I have joined Microsoft and specifically the Windows team to work on the future of standard C++ for Windows. What does this mean for the Modern project? Modern C++ for the Windows Runtime is now owned by Microsoft. That means I won’t be releasing any further updates here or on GitHub. Instead, you should expect a future version to arrive directly from Microsoft. The good news is that I am finally free to work on Modern in a fulltime capacity so I will be able to deliver a production quality language projection far more rapidly than I could have on my own. I also have the help of an incredible team of people here at Microsoft, which means that Modern will be so much better than I could have imagined!

Available on GitHub

Modern is now available for download from GitHub. This is the first public preview of the Modern project and I look forward to your feedback!

Here it is: https://github.com/kennykerr/modern

Credits

I would like to thank the developers who tested private builds or contributed in one way or another including James Clarke, Ales Holecek, James McNellis, Jeremiah Morrill, Larry Osterman, Raffaele Rialdi, John Sheehan, Kirk Shoop, and Charles Torre. Your feedback helped to shape my understanding of the Windows Runtime and the modern C++ language projection.

What is Modern?

Modern is a Standard C++ language projection for the Windows Runtime. The Modern compiler produces a header-only library designed to provide Standard C++ developers with first-class access to the Windows API. As I’ve previously shown, Modern provides a classy type system to target the Windows platform with standard C++.

Need a simple example? The Windows.Foundation namespace provides the Uri class with its constructor accepting a string argument. The C++ developer can call this in the most natural way:

using namespace Windows::Foundation;

Uri first(L"http://kennykerr.ca/");

The Uri class also provides the CombineUri method, which returns another Uri object:

Uri combined = first.CombineUri(L"articles");

And it provides a way to get the canonical representation as a string:

String string = combined.ToString();

That’s all there is to it. No pointers or hats, no reference counting or error codes, nothing that isn’t straightforward and natural to the casual C++ developer.

But I need more power!

Sure thing. Modern provides a library-based language projection. That means you can drill down as far as you want to go. Creating a Windows Runtime class involves the use of an activation factory.

auto factory = GetActivationFactory<Uri, IUriRuntimeClassFactory>();

If you’ve ever tried calling the operating system’s RoGetActivationFactory function you’ll know what a saving this is. With the factory in hand, I can call the logical construction method to create the Uri object:

Uri uri = factory.CreateUri(L"http://kennykerr.ca/");

Not satisfied with the Uri class? You can just ask for Uri’s default interface:

IUriRuntimeClass default = uri;

But if you do that, you’ll notice that IUriRuntimeClass doesn’t provide the ToString method. This comes courtesy of the IStringable interface also provided by the Uri class. No problem, we can just query for it:

IStringable stringable = default.As<IStringable>();	
String string = stringable.ToString();

The Windows Runtime is built on the essentials of COM. That means IUnknown** and lots of HRESULTs, right? Wrong. Modern takes advantage of C++11 and beyond to provide a truly modern language projection for the Windows Runtime. So while it is still COM under the hood, a C++ developer should think in terms of references rather than pointers. Practically nothing is off limits to the developer hungry for power, but you don’t need to sacrifice productivity or safety along the way. About the only thing that Modern prohibits is explicit reference counting. It uses C++11’s move semantics to handle reference counting reliably and sparingly. So, given an IUnknown reference:

IUnknown unknown = uri;

I can call the modern equivalent of IUnknown’s QueryInterface:

IUriRuntimeClass uri = unknown.As<IUriRuntimeClass>();	

But there’s no AddRef or Release methods. You can even retrieve the underlying interface pointer and call QueryInterface directly:

IUriRuntimeClass uri;
HRESULT hr = unknown->QueryInterface(set(uri));

But even here the reference counting is hidden away. The uri object receiving the new reference takes care of its own reference counting and the AddRef and Release virtual functions are still inaccessible. So while all of the underlying ABI virtual functions are just a -> away, the reference counting is safely and efficiently taken care of by the library and the compiler.

What if you still desperately need to shoot yourself in the foot? No problem, just get the naked COM interface pointer:

ABI::Windows::Foundation::IUriRuntimeClass * danger = get(uri);
danger->AddRef();

The rabbit hole goes deeper still but I’ll leave it there for the moment.

What’s ready?

The GitHub repository includes library sets for developing apps for Windows 8.1 and Windows 10. It includes full projections containing everything you might need to build anything you can imagine, but it also contains smaller library sets for scenarios where you might not need XAML or just want to use the Windows Runtime from a desktop app, console, or service.

You can use this public preview to build XAML apps or apps directly with CoreWindow. You can write console and desktop apps that just happen to use Windows Runtime components but don’t rely on an app container or core dispatcher. It’s up to you.

What’s next?

I am not releasing the Modern compiler at this time. The compiler is required for component development, to produce updated library sets, as well as project templates.

Support for binary composition, required by XAML, is currently experimental. This is likely where I’ll be spending a lot more time improving the language projection. You can however write a simple XAML app and take advantage of the existing support for binary composition. An example is provided on GitHub.

XAML also requires a limited form of reflection. This is mostly working but it needs a bit more time to mature and I need to figure out how XAML designer support can be integrated.

Support for creating collections is in the process of being rewritten and I’ll be including that in an upcoming drop. You can of course consume collections produced by the Windows API, but you cannot create your own collections very easily. Expect this in the next update.

Windows Runtime structures are currently projected quite sparsely. In particular, better support for Numerics is coming.

Clang support is experimental. The current Clang build for Windows doesn’t work too well with the RTM build of Visual Studio 2015. Debugging is not integrated and there is a mismatch between the Clang and CL compiler options.

Visual Studio and the IntelliSense engine still struggles a bit with the large headers and a lot of the metaprogramming, but the compiler is satisfied and that’s what counts. This is the reason why the Modern library is spread out across a number of headers rather than just shipping in a single header file. I’ve done a lot of work to simplify the code. Earlier builds of the language projection took a few minutes to precompile. The code was beautiful with elegant templates but compile time was a killer. I’m actively working on reducing precompile time, but it is already quite reasonable.

Finally, I was hoping to secure some kind of corporate sponsorship for the Modern project but that has not materialized. This means that I’ll be updating Modern as I have free time to commit to the project.

Enjoy!

Clang and the Windows Runtime

A compiler developer recently challenged me to see whether Modern produces code that Clang can compile. The Modern compiler produces a C++ library that is effectively a standard C++ language projection for the Windows Runtime. Given that it is standard C++, surely the Clang compiler will be able to handle it. As you can imagine, a compile-time language projection is going to rely quite heavily on generic programming so it took about an hour this morning to tweak the base library to support the particular way that Clang interprets the C++ standard. It was mostly a bunch of warnings about missing typename keywords in template type parameters. A short while later I built the first app targeting the Windows Runtime with Modern C++ and the Clang compiler.

clang